This book describes an innovative approach to the reflexive game theory. The
applications of this theory include predicting and influencing choices made by individual
subjects belonging to groups that have their own collective goals and interests. The
coordination between a subject's individual interests and those of a group is governed
by the anti-selfishness principle: a subject belonging to a group, in pursuing his own
interests, may not cause harm to the interests of the group as a whole. This principal is
as foundational to the reflexive game theory as the principle of guaranteed results in
the classical game theory.
In the first edition of this book the author demonstrated that based on the intuitive
ideas about human mental domain, it is possible to construct a model capable of
explaining and predicting. The author moved from unobservable mental phenomena to
the acts of behavior that are possible to observe instrumentally. In the second edition,
the author includes an additional chapter to describe another way of constructing the
model: from behavior to the mental domain. It occurs that these two ways intersect.
At their intersection, there is a model of an organism capable of making choice. This
model allows us to discover an unknown before connections between the entropy of
input and that of the output of the system capable of making bipolar choice. This
model also allowed us to suggest a new explanation for the Matching Law formulated
by Herrnstein and Baum concerning behavior of rats and pigeons in the experimental
The first edition of "Algebra of Conscience"  appeared in 1982 and was the first
specialized work modeling the phenomenon of conscience. The method used in this
book made is possible to connect moral experience with the decision-making
procedures on the level of mathematical models. The application of such models allows
us to propose the hypothesis of two fundamentally different ethical systems
determining the normative patterns of human behavior in situations of conflict. In the
first ethical system, the subject's self-esteem is raised if the subject seeks to resolve
the conflict; in the second, it is raised by seeking to dramatize the conflict.
The second edition published in 2001 is significantly expanded. Its second part devoted
to moral choice is completely new. Based in the theory presented in the first part, it
constructs the model of a subject capable of making an intentional choice. A special
variable corresponds to the subject's intention. This development allows us to include
freedom of will and freedom of choice within the model, and also to generalize
classical 2x2 game theory to the case where outcomes, in addition to having utility
measures, are either 'positive' or 'negative'. In its concluding chapters the book
constructs the dynamic model of the intentional subject faced with a choice between
two alternatives, neither of which is morally acceptable for the subject. It is shown that
in this case the probabilities of choice of the alternatives may change chaotically, so
one cannot predict which alternative will be chosen or even the probabilities with
which they will be chosen.
The book describes the general model of a cosmic subject resembling the human
being. At the basis of the model lie a few simple assumptions about operating with
the categories of good and evil. The model explains a range of psychological
phenomena and demonstrates that the just intonation set of musical intervals is
generated by mechanisms of self-reflexion. This suggests the hypothesis that a sign of
the activity of cosmic subjects is the creation of ratios similar to those existing
between musical tones. The author has found C-major and C-minor scales encoded in
the spectrum of object SS433, which may evidence  its artificial origin. In the last
chapter, the author construct a metaphorical model of the Universe, whose structure
is predetermined not only by physical laws, but also by the moral imperative, to which
all cosmic subjects subordinate their activity.
The book describes how the representation of certain psychological processes with a
chain of heat engines allows modeling a large number of mental phenomena. This
relation seems enigmatic in so far as we cannot find any analogues to heat engines
in human body. Nevertheless, in his previous book, The Cosmic Subject, the author
tried to link the chains of heat engines with objects physically existing in the reality.
In his new book, the author chose a fundamentally different way. He revises the very
concept of existing by considering that the ideal physical objects may also have a
status of real existence. Mental phenomenology, according to the author, is a
manifestation of existence of such ideal objects. Along this way the author deduces
the main psychophysical laws and the Just Intonation set of musical intervals.