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Psychology.”

This paper describes work done in the Soviet Union involving formal approaches

to psychology. The work is taxonomized into cybernetic models, information

theory and psychology, decision making, automata theory and psychology, and

perception and psychophysics. Several projects are described in depth and many

others are briefly mentioned. To facilitate the description of Soviet work, the

history and current setting of Soviet mathematical psychology as well as

appropriate ties to related Western work are described. Finally, some Soviet

discussions of Western mathematical psychology are themselves discussed. On the

whole, Soviet mathematical psychology is a young but growing field of study. Its

main impetus has been cybernetics, and it has developed with little direct

interaction with related Western work. While there are many similarities between

Soviet and Western mathematical psychology, there are some interesting

functional differences.

Special representations of standard Boolean functions allow us to model the

process of ethical choice, both as a behavioral process and as a structural

description of the subjective inner world of the individual, with its categories

such as "good," "evil," "doubt," "compromise," "conflict," "suffering," etc. Two

different ethical systems based on different rules for the binary contraposition

of "good" and "evil" are postulated. Each ethical system corresponds to its own

evaluation of the ethical status of various types of individuals. The hypothesis is

proposed that in Western culture and in Soviet culture the different ethical

systems are normatively realized, and experimental evidence to support this

hypothesis is given. Finally, the axioms that are selected for the two systems

are shown to follow from a few precisely stated intuitions that have empirical

content.

Vol. 2, pp. 719-728.

It is shown that ethical structures can be modeled with Boolean algebras. Two

different ethical systems based on different evaluations of binary contrapo-

sition of "good" and "evil" may exist. Each ethical system corresponds to its

own typological hierarchy of individuals. The hypothesis is proposed that in

Western culture and in Soviet culture the different ethical systems are realized,

and experimental arguments to support this hypothesis are given.

Algebraic polynomials with Boolean functions as coefficients may be used to

represent a person's inner world. In this manner, it is possible to express

complex structures of and from the viewpoints of various persons. The use of

such polynomials allows us to introduce the concept of specific operators of

realization, and build a mathematical model explaining the most simple aspects

of the subconscious and obsession

The central thesis of this paper is to present a special interpretation of

classical propositional calculus. The initial and indefinable concepts are the

following: good, evil, conflict, and union. The concepts "conflict" and "union"

are spiritual categories and not part of the strategy of interaction. In the

formal calculus of game theory, ethical problems are completely ignored; in

the given approach strategical problems are ignored. In constructing a

formalization of ethical problems one must consider human reflection and

reflective structures.

1977-1981

2009-2012

2007-2008

2003-2006

1999-2002

1995-1998

1989-1993

1986-1987

1982-1985

1977-1981

1962-1975

1977-1981