Vladimir A. Lefebvre, William H. Batchelder, “The Nature of Soviet Mathematical
Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1981, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 153-183.
This paper describes work done in the Soviet Union involving formal approaches
to psychology. The work is taxonomized into cybernetic models, information
theory and psychology, decision making, automata theory and psychology, and
perception and psychophysics. Several projects are described in depth and many
others are briefly mentioned. To facilitate the description of Soviet work, the
history and current setting of Soviet mathematical psychology as well as
appropriate ties to related Western work are described. Finally, some Soviet
discussions of Western mathematical psychology are themselves discussed. On the
whole, Soviet mathematical psychology is a young but growing field of study. Its
main impetus has been cybernetics, and it has developed with little direct
interaction with related Western work. While there are many similarities between
Soviet and Western mathematical psychology, there are some interesting
Vladimir A. Lefebvre, “An Algebraic Model of Ethical Cognition,”
Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1980, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 83-120.
Special representations of standard Boolean functions allow us to model the
process of ethical choice, both as a behavioral process and as a structural
description of the subjective inner world of the individual, with its categories
such as "good," "evil," "doubt," "compromise," "conflict," "suffering," etc. Two
different ethical systems based on different rules for the binary contraposition
of "good" and "evil" are postulated. Each ethical system corresponds to its own
evaluation of the ethical status of various types of individuals. The hypothesis is
proposed that in Western culture and in Soviet culture the different ethical
systems are normatively realized, and experimental evidence to support this
hypothesis is given. Finally, the axioms that are selected for the two systems
are shown to follow from a few precisely stated intuitions that have empirical
Vladimir A. Lefebvre, “Mathematical Modeling of Ethical Systems.”
Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Mathematical Modeling, 1979,
Vol. 2, pp. 719-728.
It is shown that ethical structures can be modeled with Boolean algebras. Two
different ethical systems based on different evaluations of binary contrapo-
sition of "good" and "evil" may exist. Each ethical system corresponds to its
own typological hierarchy of individuals. The hypothesis is proposed that in
Western culture and in Soviet culture the different ethical systems are realized,
and experimental arguments to support this hypothesis are given.
Vladimir A. Lefebvre, “A Formal Approach to the Problem of Good and Evil.”
General Systems, 1977, Vol. 22, pp. 183-185.
The central thesis of this paper is to present a special interpretation of
classical propositional calculus. The initial and indefinable concepts are the
following: good, evil, conflict, and union. The concepts "conflict" and "union"
are spiritual categories and not part of the strategy of interaction. In the
formal calculus of game theory, ethical problems are completely ignored; in
the given approach strategical problems are ignored. In constructing a
formalization of ethical problems one must consider human reflection and